The mountains on the border between Iran and Iraqi Kurdistan have for years provided a living for Kurdish smugglers known as “kulbars”. They use packhorses to transport goods over the rugged terrain – often products like satellite dishes and alcohol that are banned in Iran.
The human-rights group Amnesty International says Iranian border guards illegally shoot and kill dozens of the smugglers every year.
When the border guards don’t catch the smugglers, they often kill their horses. Our Observers in western Iran say at least 90 horses have been killed in the last three months, in three different incidents. The Iranian Border Guard Command and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which also patrols the border, have not commented publicly on the incidents.
READ MORE: The high price of smuggling in Iran
Hey you who kill kulbars’ horses, are you really OK with feeding your family using money earned by killing horses? How can you live with yourselves? Horses are innocent innocent innocent #NoToHorseKiling
“It’s a kind of punishment”
“When border guards come across kulbars they shoot them, often killing them. Sometimes the horses are killed with their masters. But most often what happens is that the kulbars run away, leaving their horses behind. Instead of taking the horses away, the border guards shoot them on the spot. They don’t even bury them. In some cases they don’t shoot correctly; they just injure them. Horses sometimes suffer for days before dying.
Sometimes you’ll have dozens of dead horses in the same spot. The zone can get infected for weeks or even months. Sometimes the dead horses are left near water sources, putting humans and other animals who drink the water at risk of disease.
The border guards don’t have to kill the horses. It’s hard to keep patrolling the border if they’re leading a group of abandoned horses, so they just kill them in cold blood. And it’s a kind of punishment for the smugglers. The border guards want to make a point.
It’s barbaric to massacre these lovely and innocent animals because of the faults of their owners. I’m 25 and it’s been happening as far back as I can remember. People didn’t used to talk about it much before; when human beings are being killed for smuggling, it seems silly to make a fuss about their horses being killed too. But in recent years that has changed. Photos and videos of the dead horses are being published online, so now there are many more people who know about it. It’s not just locals any more. People talk about it on social media and there’s pressure for a change.
At the end of the day, the solution is not complicated. The border guards just need to recognize the animals’ right to live. I’m not naïve. I’m not asking them to leave the horses alone. I’m asking -- like many other people -- for the border guards to round up the horses and sell them in the market. That way we could save their lives. Each horse is worth around 7.5 million Tomans [€1,500].
Iranian MPs have been speaking out about the issue. On May 7, MP Ahmadali Keykha in an interview asked the Department of the Environment to work with the border guards to stop killing “innocent horses”, adding that it was not the right approach to stopping smuggling. Keykha suggested using tranquilizer darts and selling the horses at auction.
CORRECTION (9/5/18): An initial version of this article stated there had been no reports of smugglers being killed in the border region in the last three months. That is incorrect: there are reports that a smuggler was shot by Iranian border troops on March 26 in Sardasht County and later died of his injuries.